ब्रिटिश गढ़वाल के प्रसिद्ध मंदिर
Major Temples of british Garhwal
( ब्रिटिश युग में उत्तराखंड मेडिकल टूरिज्म- )
लेखक : भीष्म कुकरेती (विपणन व बिक्री प्रबंधन विशेषज्ञ )
विष्णु संबंधी मंदिर
It is believed that Nar and Narayan sages did tap at Badrikashram (Mana Village, Firs village at the China border). Adi Shankaracharya established Badrinath idol in Badrinath temple. Agni deity (fire deity) lives in Badrikashram region by the call of Badri and Agni keeps Water Kund hot there
Besides Vishnu temple, there were temples of Lakshmi, Matamurti, other small temples and Shiva temple.
Main idol is of Badrinath or Vishnu or Nar Narayan. Other idols in Badrinath temple, are Narsingh, varah, garu, Narad and Marak. Marak was an asur and he helped deities for defeating asur.
There are other four temples under Panch Badri- Yogbadri, Dhyanbadri, Vridhbadri and Adivadri. it was compulsory for Vaishnava pilgrims for visiting all five Badri Temples. it is believed that there is permanent residences of devotees of deities Ganesh, Prahlad, Kuber, Narad, Ghantakarn in Badri region.it is believed that Brahma resides in Brahmkapal. People offered Pind (tribute to dead) in Brahmkapal. It was belief that Lord Vishnu appeared before real devotees in Chaturbhuj form (Four armed form).
The Yogbadri temple is at Pandukeshwar and Vishnu is worshipped as Vasudeva. It was believed that there is gold in a Human form idol and that gold came from Indra’s heaven Kingdom.
The Dhyanbadri temple is in Urgam. There is Vridhabadri temple in Urgam too. Urgam is related to Nag deity. Urgam is related to nag, Vishnu and Shiva.
Vridhbadri is in Animath Gautam sage did tap here. Uma got the name as Arpana because she did Tap here in Animath.
There were many temples in Joshimath or Jyotirdham. There is Narsingh temple in Joshimath. Bhavishy Badri temple is in Tapovan. it is believed that when the road for Badrinath will be blocked in future, the worshipping of Badrinath will start from Bhaishy Badri. There were temples of Bhagvati, Garud and Vasudev in Joshimath.
There were ten Narsingh temples in Garhwal.
Rawal the chief priest of Badrinath temple resided in Joshimath. When in winter, Badrinath temple is closed for six months, the rituals for Badrinath temple are performed in Vasudev temple in Joshimath. Initilly, Dandi swamis used to perform rituals but in Jaikrit Shah period, Nambudiparad became priests of Badrinath temple. Rawal had three four assistants those used to perform rituals at Badrinath and Joshimath. Devprayg Pande used to perform rituals at Taptakund , Badrinath. In Brahmkapal, Hatwal, Dandi and Kothiyal Brahmins were priests.
Dimri Brahmin were priest at Lakshmidevi temple in Badrinath. Maliya Brahmin of Tangani village were priests of Shiva temple.
The chief priests of Yogbadri was Bhatt from Karnataka. Dimri were priests of Dhyan Badri temple, South Indians were priests in Vridh badri and Adi Badri.
Mostly, in other Vishnu temples of Garhwal, Vairagi were priests.
Miscellaneous Vaishnava temple
Triyuginarayan temple was very important Vaishnava sect temple. It is said that Himalaya daughter Uma married lord Shiva in Triyuginarayan. There were four hot water springs including Vaitarni Tapkund. It was belif that Nagdevta appeared in one of Kunds and offer blessing to devotees. there used to be permnnet dhuni (fire smoke) in Triyuginarayan.
There is Murli Manohar temple in Chandrapuri of Kalifat. Chandramani Dangwal the minister and priest of Garhwal King Pradip Shah built the temple and the region called Chandrapuri. Chandramani Dangwal also built a Shiva temple in Dang village of Gayara patti of Tehri Garhwal. The stone scripts on temple indicate that temple was built in 1675 Sanvat (1618 AD).
There was a Murlimanohar temple in Gulabkot built by Gulab Singh Rautela.
There were Murlimanohar temples in Devalgrh and Vidyakoti. Vidyadhar Dobral built a Dharamshala and garden in Vidyakoti in 1706
There were 15 Lakshmi Vishnu idol temples in Garhwal. There were 7 Narayan idol temples in Garhwal.
There was big Lakshminarayan temple in Shrinagar. Shankar Dobhal built a Shankar math Vaishnava temple in 1785.
Narayan Dobhal built Narayan temple at Shivanandi. Narayn temple were there in Simli village (Pindarparpatti), in Adibadri Sili of Chandpur; Kotganv near Pauri, Narayan Bagad and Nand Prayag.
Ram temples were in Givar, Shrinagar, Kothar (Lobha),. There is a Rampaduka temple at ramjasganv in Udaypur Patti (Gangasalan). People believed that Rama spent s ome time here in Vanvas and the name of forest is called Vanas.
There were many names of Devi as Nanda, Uma, Devi, Balkunvari, Jhalimali,Kunja etc.
There was Uma temple in Karnaprayag established by Adi Shankaracharya.
Nanda Devi was one of the major Devi in British Garhwal barring Salan. Barring Salan, evy family worshipped Nanda Devi. There were ample numbers of Nand Devi temples in north British Garhwal.
The Nanda Devi temples at Karurgram (Malla Dashauli), Nanora and Hindola (Talla Dasholi) were believed the most blessing and effective temples.
The river Nandakini, Nandak patti and hill tops as Nandadevi, Nandaghunghati, Trishul had relations with Nanda Goddess
Parvati people or people of Chandpur , Lobha and Nagpur worshipped Nanda Devi as Ishtdevi.
Other famous Nanda Devi temples were in Semali, Ming, Talla Dhura , Nauti and Gair villages. People celebrated Shiva Parvati marriage on Nandashtami in those temples.
Nanda Jat Yatra
Dr Dabral wrote that people used to celebrate of above regions ‘Uma-Shiva’ marriage on Nanda Ashtami day.
People used to gather at Nauti village and they put Devi on Palki and used to start a tour (jath). From nauti, devotees used to reach to Vedini kund at the bottom of Trishul hill shrine. Devotees used to perform rituals enthusiastically. There is great celebration on every twelfth year. Latu deity from Nauliganv of Dashauli Patti also used to move with Nada Devi in Jat. It is believed that a four horn he sheep would take birth in Chandpur region and That Chausingya Khadu was also taken with Jat. There is kept the dowry of gems for Nanda on back of Chausingya Khadu. Then sheep was left to walk over hill Trishul. Atkinson wrote that there used to be head crack of sheep and its flesh used to go here and there. People used to pick the flesh. People used to offer milk to Nanda and used to come back. There is still totally ban on cooking, grass cutting , dancing, wood cutting and singing /whistling etc. Belief is that if those acts were done, there will be snow storm.
Lower caste had Urpani Devi ‘Than’ as goddess in Nauti and nearby villages. Those ‘Than’ were of piles of stone son hill top of villages.
Major Temple of Kali goddess was in Kalimath.
Uma or Gauri temples were in Devalgarh, Tapovan, and Gauriganv of Maikhanda region. People sacrificed animals in those temples.
Durga Temples were in Fegu village of Kalifat, Devuttha village of Nagpur, Bhavngaon of Talla Udaypur.
Maharshimardani temples were in Triguni-Jakh, Shrinagar, and Devalgarh.
There were Devi temples in Kathur (Dhangu), Daoli (Dabralsyun), Banchuri (Udyapur), Bhuvaneshwari Peeth in Udyapur, Sukhvasani Than in Udaypur Patti, Bhadrakali than near Bhuvaneshwari (Udyapur), Chamunda Devi temple in Udaypur patti. ( refer -Folk stories by Bhishma Kukreti)
The Devi temple of Barsuri has a folk tory amoung Kukretis. Originally, there was devi temple in jaspur (malla Dhangu). One Kukreti family migrated to Barsuri (Langur, near Dwarikhal). One Night, Barsuri Kukreti took idols and images of Jaspur Devi temple and established Devi Than in Barsuri. From that dy, jaspur people did not build any Devi temple in Jaspur region. This author assumes that the Devi of Jaspur would be Kunja Devi as there is a hilly area in Jaspur called Kunja Kholi.
From British period or before, there hasd been a Devi temple in Dyusi (Maniyarsyun).
There is Deepa Temple in Ghansyali hill Khatli patti. There were /are Devi temples in Tilkani hill top of Savali and Gavani village of Kingadigad and Khadwal village of Chaundkot region.
Jwalpadevi temple is in Jwalpasera of Kafolsyun.
There were many temples of Kalidevi.
There were Chamunda or Chandika Temples in Biravganv (Kalifat), Dungargaon (Bichhla Nagpur),
There were 9 Chamunda temples in Garhwal.
There were Shitaladevi temples in Shrinagar.
Hariyali temple was in Jasoli of Dhanpur Patti.
There were Matri Temples too as in Badrinath.
There was an exclusive Lakshmi temple in Badrinath. There was Navdurga temple in Joshimath.
there were Bhagwati temples in Garhwal as in Joshimath, Sirguru and Bhagotliya (Dhoundiyalsyun).
Bhuvneshwari peeth in Sanguda is old temple.
Jhalimali devi the kuldevi of Khuksal caste is in Kingorikhal of Aswalsyun. There is another temple of Jhalimali at Jhalimath near Gauchar.
In Sumari (Katalsyun), there is Gauradevi temple and Nagarasani Temple.
Dhari devi temple is in Kaliyasaur near Shrinagar.
Bunkhal Kalika Devi Temple is Bunkhal Thalisain.
There is Bhumyal Devi temple in Gadri of pokhra block of Pauri Garhwal.
There is mahakali temple in nainidanda region at Chair –Chaubara.
Dhar ki Devi Than and Kalinga Mai Temple is in Bharki village of Chamoli.
There were/are Manani devi temple, Shakambari Devi temple, Naridevi, Lalita Devi, Mathiyna and Rakeshwari temples in Rudraprayag district.
केदार समूह मंदिर
Kedarnath below Mahapanth shikhar is at Mandakini River bank. Nearby Kedarnath temple, there are Swargrohani, Bhrigupanth, Mahapanth and Bhaironjhamp shrines. According to Kedarkalp 1:4, the devotee who jumps and offer his life at those places is greeted by Indra the king of deities and the person reaches to Rudralaya (heaven).
According to Skinner 29000 devotees reached to Mahaptah for reaching to Rudralok. Dr Dabral stated that the figure is very much exaggerated. Till early British rule, Brahmins used to act rituals for those going to Mahapath. Drum players used to go for a short period along with devotees going for jumping from Mahapath hills (Okley).
British administration banned that devotional suicide.
There are many temples in Nagpur and Painkhanda regions. This region is called the most reverend region. It is believed that deities and goddesses gather here after fifteenth of Margshirs month and celebrate various events. People believed that deities and goddesses enjoys the events and people could hear sounds of deities.
Tungnath and Rudranath temples under Kedar group were above 11500 feet. It is believed that there are self-originated Shiva lingas in those temples. It was believed that real devotees could see large size Linga in the temples at mid night on Shivaratri.
There is a cave at the bank of Rudragad above Rudranath and people believed that it has connection with Pashupatinath of Nepal. People used to worship lord Shiva as Swayambhumukharvind. In south of that cave, there is a Linga in same name –Swayambhumukharvind temple in Sarswati Kund. it was believed that there is ahuge fish and that could be sen by devotees on Fourteenth night of Krishna paksha (Krishna Chaturdashi). Madmeshwar another Kedar group temple is at Gair bank a supportive river of Mandakini. In Madmeshwar, there was same type of idol as of Kalpeshwar temple of Urgam. Very few devotees could reach there as snow fall start there around October.
Priests of Kedar group Temples
Main priest of Kedarnath temple was called Rawal. Kedarnath temple Rawal used to stay at Ukhimth. One of disciples of main Rawal used to perform rituals at Kedarnath. Pilgrims used from Baishakh (14th April) to Katik balraj divas. The Nambudiparad of Devling branch of kerla used to participate in last day event on Kartik Month.
The priests of Madhyameshwar temple were from Jagam of Chitrakali of Mysore.
The priests of Rudranath and Kalpeshwar were Dashnami Gusain.
Four Kedar group temples were under Shankarcharya peeth. Jangam are Lingayat. Dashnami Gusain were disciple of Shankar.
Other Shiva Temples
There was Markandeshwar Shiva temple in Makku village. There were temples in Tiyung, Dharsil and Fasali.
There was main Shiva temple and many hidden temples in Guptkashi. It is believed that every stone is Shiva in Guptakashi. People worship Shiva here as Vishwanath. two rivulets fall into a kund and people take Holi bath here.
Kedarnath temple priests perform rituals in Ukhimath Shiva temple.
Gopeshwar Shiva temple had importance after Kedarnath. It was believed that Parushram got weapons from Shiva in Gopeshwar though which he killed Kshatriyas. Jangam of Mysure were priests of Gopeshwar temple. There used be fair on Chaitra Navami, Ashwin Navami and Shiva Ratri at Gopeshwar temple.
Naleshwar Shiva temple is in Gartara village of Nagpur. It is believed that lord Shiva appeared before King Nala at this place.
There is Rudra Shiva Temple in Rudraprayag at the Alaknanda and Mandkini meeting place. Belief is that Narada sage did satisfy Rudra Shiva by his Tap here.
There was Shilleshwar Shiva temple at Dungari of Talla Chandpur. The priests were sanyasi. It is said that temple ws established in King Shalnivahan period.
There was Binsar or Baneshwar Shiva temple on Binsar hill of Mawalsyun, Dudhatoli shrine. It is believed that Binsar is very powerful temple.
Bhairav temple in Bhatgaon of Ghuddaursyun was also famous temple.
Koteshwar temple is there in Chalansyun Patti near Shrinagar.
Bhairav temple is there on Langurgarh hill top. There was a Snake head rod in the temple.
It is believed that there was fight between Shiva and Arjun at Bhill-Kedar temple area.
It is believed that at place of Kamleshwar temple, Shrinagar; Rama worshiped lord Shiva by offering thousand lotuses. There was shortage of one lotus and Rama offered his one y to shiva in compensation of lotus. People perform Khda Ratri on Vaikunth Chaurdashi here. There was specific ritual on Ghrit Kamal day on Achla Saptami. Priests of Kamleshwar are Puri, Gusain.
There is famous and old Shiv temple in Godeshwar, Malla Dhangu. when there was Rishekesh foot road from Rishikesh to Badrinath-Kedarnath, there was importance of Shiva temple at Mahadev Chatti (meeting place of Chandrabhaga rivulet and Ganga) , Talla Dhangu. The Shivala built by Kukretis in Jaspur village, Malla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal was also there in British rule.
Bnseshwar a Shiva temple in Timli village (Dabralsyun) is old temple. Mahabgarh a Shiva temple in Ajmer patti is also old temple.
Kaleshwar Temple is in Lansdowne. The nearby villager used to worship it as gramdevta.
There was old Sarveshwar Shiva temple in Sahaikot village of Nagpur region. Neelkanth temple in village Toliganv , Udaypur Patti near Rishikesh is famous Shiva temple.
Tadasar and Ekeshwar were old Shiva temples in Salan.
There is famous Shiva Temple in Paithani (Puri-Binsar Road).
There is a temple Dangleshwar Mahadev in Satpuli.
Mundaneshwar Temple is in Aslwalsyun Patti.
There is an old temple Adeshwar Mahadev Temple at Ranigarh, Manyarsyun.
Vatsheswar Temple was established in 1920 at Bachheli village of Katulsyun, Pauri Garhwal.
There is Godeshwar Temple in Sainji village of Kandarsyun bali patti, Pauri Garhwal.
There is a manjughosh mahadev Temple in Dehalchauri village of Kot region, Pauri Garhwal.
Narmadeshwar Shiva temple was in Shrinagar.
There were Shiva temples in Asergaon , Kadakot patti as Mritunjay temple; Kalijit Shiva temple in Kadiganv (Kalifat talla); karmjit shiva temple in Poluganv.
Initially, there were not Nandi Bull idol in temples as Tadasar and Banseshwar but later on devotees established Nandi bull iodol too. In Shiva temples, there used to be fair – rituals on Shiva Ratri and every first of Indian month, in Bhairava temples.
अन्य देवताओं के मंदिर
There were varieties of working places and temples in British Garhwal other than Shakta, Shaivya and Vaishnava sect temples. The following present worshipping places were also there in British period-
There is old worshipping place Sati Savitri temple in Kaindul, Malla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal and was in British time too.
There is Math a cremation Centre of Dalya in Jaspur, Malla Dhangu .
There is Gwill Temple the kuldevta of Kukreti in Jaspur, Malla Dhangu.
In Jaspur, Nagraja temple is quite old temple and now renovated.
Silsu temple is old temple of Karthi, Malla Dhangu.
Siddhon ka Kot: There were caves where siddha used to do tap in Siddhon ka Kot on manikut hills of Uadyapur Patti, Pauri Garhwal.
Ganesh Gufa- ganesh gufa is near Neelkanth Mahadev, Udaypur Patti.
Sati Math in Bhabhar- Sati math is there in Bhabhar , Pauri Garhwal near Kanwashram.
There are Math or Ashraams near Kanwashram too as Charakh ka danda .
Siddhbli or Hanuman temple is there in Kotdwara and was in British period too.
There are devgufa, pari Gufa, Brahmdhungi, Nath baba udyar etc worshipping places in Dudhatoli region .
There is Bridh Bharsar temple of 11 th century in Bharsar region, Pauri Garhwal.
famous Bhairav garhi a Bhairav temple is in Langurgarh.
Danda Nagraja temple is in Kafolsyun region. Silsu temple is in Slsu village of banelsyun, Pauri Garhwal.
There is Kandoliya Kshetrapal Temple above Pauri.
There is Nag Devta temple near Pauri on Bubakhal-Kandoliya raod.
Lakshman temples are there in Kot, Sitaunsyun, Pauri Garhwal and are of 11th century.
There is Gorakhnath Gufa in Shrinagar.
There is Satyanath Math of Gorkhanath sect in Devalgarh.
There is Som ka Manda in Devalgarh.
There are six caves related to Nath sects in Devalgarh.
There is Ashtavakra temple in Khirsu region of Pauri Garhwal.
There is Nagraja temple in Sumari village.
There is Naagraja temple in Ufalda village near Shrinagar of Pauri Garhwal,
There was surya temple in Kyark, Pauri Garhwal as an idol was found there.
There are following important temples in Adi Badri, Chmoli –
Ram lakshman, Janki Temple, Hanuman temple, Ganesh temple, Garud Temple, Satyanarayan temple, Kuber temple and Surya temple.
There is Nagnath temple in Pokhari, Chamoli.
Ghantakarn Temple is in Badginda of Urgam valley.
Banshinarayan temple is in Urgam valley.
There are temples as Dudhai dani, Devalaya of Bharki, Bhumyal, Jakh near Chopta region in Chamoli Garhwal.
There are Nrisingh, Timundiya, Hanuman temples in Joshimath.
There is hanuman temple in Auli.
There is Lakshman lokpal temple in Hemkund.
Agysthmuni temple is in Rudraprayag district.
Jakh temple is in Guptakashi.
Kartikey swami temple is on Pokhari-Rudraprayag road.
There were 11 Ghantakarn temples in British Garhwal.
There were Udasi temples in (Guru ram ray followers) Poplaiganv of Mawalsyun, Jaigon of Ajmir Patti and Shrinagar.
There was a jain temple in Old Shrinagar.
There was no Mosque in Garhwal till 1880. There was a Takiya of Shah peer in Shrinagar.
Once for a while there was achurch in Shrinagar around 1657 (padarivada0 but later on Shankar Dobhal built Shankar Math there.